How Solar Panels Are Made

how solar panels are made

Solar panels save you money and save the planet, and pay themselves off after a number of years.

They suck up rays from the sun, converting them into solar energy in order to power your home or business.

But have you ever wondered how solar panels are made?

This blog will give you the answers, keep reading to learn all there is to know!

How Are Solar Panels Made?

It’s a common question: “What solar panels are made out of?

Let’s go through the process of how solar panels are made step by step!

Step 1: The Creation Of Silicon Ingots

What Are Solar Panels Made Of? It all starts with the creation of silicon ingots.

Silicon is a vital part of solar panels as it’s a semiconductor material that absorbs sunlight to convert it into electricity.

And silicon ingots are created by melting high-purity silicon in a furnace at a temperature of over 2,550 degrees Fahrenheit. 

This creates a molten liquid, which is then slowly cooled down to form a single crystal that’s shaped like a cylinder. 

The crystal’s shape is then designed to match the dimensions required for us here at Zeno.

Once the silicon ingot has been created, it’s sliced into very thin wafers with a saw – these wafers are generally about 200 micrometers thick (or the thickness of a sheet of paper).

The wafers are cleaned and etched to remove any impurities that might’ve surfaced during the slicing process. 

And if the resulting wafers have a consistent thickness, they’re right to produce effective solar panels.

Step 2: Creating The Modules

Step 2 is to add a thin layer of phosphorus to one side of the wafer and boron (a dark amorphous powder) to the other side. 

This creates what is known as a p-n junction – the basic building block of a solar cell. 

The p-n junction then allows the solar cell to generate an electric field, which separates the positive and negative charges created when sunlight hits the cell!

This separation of charges creates an electric current, which can be used to power devices or stored in a battery for later use.

Once the solar cells have been created, they’re assembled into modules – a vital step towards how solar panels are made.

A typical module consists of 60 or 72 cells connected in a series. 

The cells are wired together using a conductive adhesive, and a thin layer of solder is applied to the connections to make them strong. 

Then it’s time for the modules to be tested for power output, where any defective cells are replaced.

Considering we’re trying to fit our tier 1 solar panels to one million plus homes in the next few decades – the manufacturing process is highly automated!

This allows us to produce large quantities of solar panels quickly and efficiently and is an important step in how your solar panels are made. 

Step 3: A Glass For the Modules 

Specifically, the next step is encapsulating the modules with a layer of glass on the front, and a polymer back sheet on the back to protect the cells from the elements. 

This process also helps increase the efficiency of the solar panel by reducing the amount of light that is reflected away from the cells. 

Step 4: Testing The Modules

After the encapsulation process is done, each module is tested to ensure it meets the right electrical and mechanical requirements. 

The modules are tested for:

  • Power output
  • Durability
  • Resistance to environmental factors like humidity and temperature fluctuations
  • And subjected to a hail impact test to ensure that they can withstand extreme weather conditions.

Step 5: Installing The Solar Panels

The solar panels are now ready for installation!

They are placed on rooftops or other suitable locations and connected to form a solar panel array. 

The panels are mounted at an angle to maximize their exposure to sunlight and can be adjusted as needed to optimize performance. 

The energy generated by the solar panels is stored in a battery or fed into the electrical grid, providing you with a source of reliable and renewable energy!

What are Solar Panels Made From? | Final Facts

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What are Solar panels made from?

  • Sand
  • Silicon
  • Metal conductors
  • Glass 
  • Polymer
  • Wiring
  • Frames


The first raw material for your solar panels is sand!

This is because silicon is the main component in beach sand.

Quartz sand is converted into silicon using an arc furnace at very high temperatures.

The most common material used in solar panel manufacturing is silicon, which is a semiconductor material.

This is a relatively unknown part of how solar panels are made!

Other materials that solar are panels made of include:

Metal conductors

Solar cells are made from thin wafers of silicon that are sandwiched between metal conductors.


This glass is a special glass designed to maximize the amount of sunlight that reaches the cells while protecting against weather conditions.


The key function of polymers in solar panels is to encapsulate the cells and protect them from the environment. Polymer material acts like an armour; applied over the cells to prevent moisture, dust, and other contaminants from getting inside and damaging the cells.


The solar cells are connected together with wiring to form a solar panel.


The solar panel is then mounted in a frame to provide support and protect the panel from damage.

It’s worth noting there are many different types of solar panels, and some are made differently (for example, some solar panels are made using thin-film technology) but the above is a common procedure.

Contact Us Today!

So there is a step-by-step guide on how solar panels are made!

To learn just how our Zeno solar panels can benefit you, check out this link here

To learn how much you’ll save on power bills for your home, business, or both, be sure to contact us for a quote now.